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Promoting the high-quality development of China’s shale oil upstream industry by following international first-class standard
The United States energy independence is in stark contrast to China’s rising dependence on foreign resources. The international petroleum order-rebuilding and the China–US game have brought greater uncertainties to China’s oil and gas supply, and China’s energy security issues are increasingly prominent. China’s shale oil reserv. . .
China Petroleum Exploration, 2019 Vol. 24 (5): 547-552    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2019.05.001
 
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>>New discovery in the exploration of the Cambrian–Ordovician dolomite buried hills in Tarim Basin and its significance PDF (19023KB)
>>Main factors controlling the enrichment of shale gas in the Wufeng Formation–Longmaxi Formation in the Jiaoshiba area, Fuling shale gas field PDF (8096KB)
>>Characteristics and origin of the Lower Cretaceous dolomitic tight oil reservoir in the Erenaor sag, Erlian Basin PDF (11521KB)
  • Current Issue
      01 January 2020, Volume 25 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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    Oil and Gas Exploration Progress and Upstream Development Strategy of PetroChina
    Li Luguang, He Haiqing, Fan Tuzhi, Liu Henian, Yang Tao, Wan Lunkun, Huang Fuxi, Li Zhi
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.001
    Abstract ( 210 HTML  ( )  
    PetroChina Company Limited (hereinafter referred to as PetroChina for short) had made 9 major domestic discoveries following the principle of efficient exploration in recent years. These discoveries formed 9 large hydrocarbon provinces with the reserve size over 100 million tons. On the basis of summarizing the exploration progress since the 13th five-year plan and the current domestic situation and requirements, a comprehensive analysis of the oil and gas resources situation, the development potential of remaining resources and the upstream business challenges was made. Then, the future overall train of thought and strategic target of PetroChina domestic upstream business were carried out. PetroChina will adhere to the steady development policy, the resource strategy and high-quality development goal to find more reserves. Domestic upstream segment will reinforce exploration and exploitation by focusing on the six major petroleum basins, paying equal attention to oil and gas, and putting conventional and unconventional resources on an equal footing. The strategic target is gain the annual average proved geological reserve by more than 1.1 billion tons of oil equivalent in 2019-2025, and achieve the oil and gas production of 220 million tons of oil equivalent in 2025. Four measures include reinforce domestic exploration and exploitation, promote scientific and technological innovation, deepen reform and management innovation, and strengthen the construction of the Party are put forward to ensure the realization of the strategic target.
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    Exploration Progress and Upstream Development Strategy of Sinopec
    Cai Xunyu, Liu Jinlian, Zhao Peirong, Liu Chaoying, Cheng Zhe
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 11-19.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.002
    Abstract ( 109 HTML  ( )  
    Since the strategic reorganization, the upstream resources strategy of Sinopec has been steadily promoted, and a development pattern from east to west, from oil to oil and gas, from conventional to unconventional and new energy resources has been established. It has formed a development trend of stable development of oil, rapid development of natural gas, orderly promotion of new energy resources, continuous optimization of overseas oil and gas business, improvement of supporting engineering technologies, and rapid advance of information and intelligent construction. Since 2016, remarkable achievements have been made in oil and gas exploration and development. Production and reserves in marine carbonate formations in the Tarim Basin and Sichuan Basin have achieved large-scale increase. Through fine exploration and development, benefit increase of reserves and production has been achieved in mature exploration areas in the east. Exploration and development of clastic rocks in the central and western basins have realized the benefit productivity construction. New breakthroughs have been made in exploration and development of deep and normal-pressure shale gas in the Sichuan Basin. New progress has been made in overseas oil and gas exploration. Looking forward to the future, Sinopec takes safeguarding national energy security as its own responsibility, vigorously improves domestic oil and gas exploration and development, continuously optimizes overseas oil and gas exploration and development structure, accelerates construction of natural gas production, supply, storage and marketing system, and actively promotes business development of new energy resources. We will vigorously carry out high-quality exploration and benefit development, achieve largescale reserves and production increase, and ensure successful achievement of the objectives for seven-year action plan.
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    Cnooc's domestic recent exploration progress and prospect
    Xie Yuhong, Gao Yangdong
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 20-30.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.003
    Abstract ( 105 HTML  ( )  
    In the past two years, China national offshore oil corporation (CNOOC) has greatly increased its investment in domestic offshore exploration, fulfilling the concept of "value exploration" with the goal of finding recoverable reserves. Along with increasing risk exploration and actively exploration over new areas and new domains, fruitful results are available. Through continuous research and evaluation, plenty of updated geologic understanding and technical breakthrough have been achieved as results. and important exploration breakthroughs have been made in three domains: buried hill in Bohai bay basin, deep water area in Qiongdongnan basin and Yangjiang depression in pearl river mouth basin. In the future, CNOOC will continue to increase its investment in exploration, continue to take effort to deal with deep layers, deep water, high-temperature and high-pressure domains, explore the depressions with potential hydrocarbon-rich generating capacity , at the same time, expand exploration domains and directions persistently.
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    The progress and prospect of shale gas exploration and development in China
    Zhao Wenzhi, Jia Ailin, Wei Yunsheng, Wang Junlei, Zhu Hanqing
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 31-44.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.004
    Abstract ( 137 HTML  ( )  
    Shale gas exploration and development in China has entered a rapid and golden age. The increasing proportion of natural gas in the energy consumption structure and the success of shale gas commerical development in the southern Sichuan Basin indicate that shale gas will be the most reliable energy succession in the future in China. This paper reviews the achievements in theoretical understanding and technologies related to shale gas development in the past 10 years, summarizes the successful experiences of shale gas commercial development, and clarifies the prospects and status of shale gas in the future natural gas development in China. China's shale gas resources have huge potential, which is a real domain of future natural gas production growth. The conditions for obtaining industrial shale gas resources include “2 high” (high gas content and high porosity), “2 large” (large thickness of high TOC intervals and large distribution area), “2 moderate” (moderate thermal evolution and moderate burial depth), and “2 good” (good preservation conditions and good fracturability). Marine shale gas in China has the most potential, and it is the major production target at present. Six technology series have been developed for exploiting the Ordovician Wufeng Formation and Silurian Longmaxi Formation shale gas in Sichuan Basin and its surroundings, which involve comprehensive geological evaluation, development optimization, fast drilling of horizontal wells, volume fracturing of horizontal wells, factory operation, efficient and clean production. The successful experience of commercial development of shale gas in China can be summarized as four key factors: ① optimized horizontal section targets; ② supporting technologies for effective and fast drilling and volume fracturing stimulation; ③ geological and engineering integration; ④ advanced organization and management. Three proposals for the future development of shale gas in China are: ① to develop key technologies and equipment for low-cost development of non-marine and deep marine shale gas; ② to enhance block-scale shale gas recovery and achieve efficient development in the whole basin; ③ to pay attention to the influence of nonresource factors on shale gas production.
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    Progress and development directions of deep oil and gas exploration and development in China
    Li Yang, Xue Zhaojie, Cheng Zhe, Jiang Haijun, Wang Ruyue
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 45-57.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.005
    Abstract ( 212 HTML  ( )  
    Marching deeper into the earth and expanding deep oil and gas resources is of great practical and strategic significance for building a solid resource base for energy security in China, as well as a realistic area for increasing China’s oil and gas exploration and development intensity. Based on a systematic summary of the global and China's deep oil and gas exploration and development situation and progress, China’s deep oil and gas potential, priority research fields and scientific and technological research directions were deeply analyzed. China is rich in deep oil and gas resources with low exploration and development levels, and therefore has a large exploration and development prospects. The multiple hydrocarbon reservoir-cap assemblages in the deep formations of the superimposed petroliferous basins in central and western China, deep lithological reservoirs and Pre-Mesozoic/Pre-Cenozoic buried-hill reservoirs in eastern down-faulted basins and the deep shale gas are the main directions for future exploration and development. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the formation mechanism and distribution of deep oil and gas, the flow mechanism of deep fluids. In addition, key technologies for deep target identification and prediction based on geophysics, fast drilling techniques under complex formation conditions, and stimulation techniques of complex reservoirs need to be developed. At the same time, cooperation between theory and technology, enterprises and departments and management innovation should be strengthened. Strengthening the management and operation of the exploration-development and geologyengineering integrations is the only way for efficient exploration and effective development of deep oil and gas.
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    Research and practice of Dream Cloud for exploration and development of PetroChina
    Du Jinhu, Shi Fugeng, Zhang Zhonghong
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 58-66.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.006
    Abstract ( 103 HTML  ( )  
    With the scale application of Internet of things, cloud computing, big data and artificial intelligence technology, information technology has entered a new era of intelligent sharing. It has become an urgent task of oil&gas exploration and development informatization to study and build an unified digital intelligent platform, to accelerate the transformation of digital intelligence, and to efficiently and flexibly respond to the change of business needs . The purpose of this paper is to discuss the related issues involved.It analyzes the background and significance of research on the Exploration and Development Dream Cloud, introduces the basic principle and overall design scheme of Dream Cloud, elaborates the research on key technologies such as Dream Cloud platform, data link lake, data middle platform capability, application store, artificial intelligence application, and also summarizes a series of general application construction achievements and application scenario cases such as the Dream Cloud platform, data link lake.
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    Progress of 3D seismic exploration technologies and oil and gas exploration and development performance in loess tableland area, Ordos Basin
    Fu Suotang, Wang Daxing, Yao Zonghui
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 67-77.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.007
    Abstract ( 218 HTML  ( )  
    Loess tableland area of the Ordos Basin is a world-famous difficult area for seismic exploration. In order to solve issues in highefficient oil exploration and development, such as sweet spots prediction in tight reservoirs, characterization of low-amplitude structures, distribution of small faults and fractures, and real-time geo-steering drilling in horizontal wells, studies have been carried out for many years on seismic exploration and several technologies have been developed, such as 3D seismic exploration with wide azimuth and broad coverage excited jointly by well shot on loess tableland and low-frequency vibrator,3D grid tomographic static correction constrained by ultra-deep micro-logging and near-surface absorption compensation on loess tableland, and sweet spot prediction based on comprehensive evaluation of multi-attribute dimension reduction and geological probability, etc. In the Panke3D “joint excitation of well shot and vibrator” seismic survey area of Heshui County and Ning County loess tableland of Eastern Gansu Province, the average penetration rate is up to 87.4% in tight reservoirs, with seismic geo-steering drilling in horizontal wells, which is more than 10% higher than that without seismic geo-steering tool. It has become a typical demonstration area in the Changqing oil field which combines seismic technologies application with oilfield development. In the Yanchi area of Ningxia province, 3D seismic with low-frequency vibrator and broad coverage technologies have been applied widely. The success rate of reservoir prediction is 72.1%, which is more than twice as high as the previous 2D seismic survey. It has achieved the breakthrough in seismic exploration technologies in the loess tableland area and strongly supported new discoveries and efficient development in oil and gas fields.
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    Breakthrough and significance of the type shale oil risky exploration of Chang 7 of the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, China
    Fu Jinhua, Li Shixiang, Hou Yuting, Zhou Xinping, Liu Jiangyan, Li Shutong
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 78-92.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.008
    Abstract ( 68 HTML  ( )  
    Changqing Oilfield Company deployed 2 horizontal wells to carry out risky exploration test in the shale oil of Chang 73 thick mudstone-shale with thin layer of siltstone in Ordos Basin in 2019. The high-yield oil flow of 121.38t/d and 108.38 t/d was obtained in two horizontal wells of Chengye 1 and Chengye 2. This discovery is of great significance to the exploration of new shale oil types deposited during the maximum lacustrine transgression of Chang 73in the basin. In this study, the core, thin section, well logging and geochemical data of 2 horizontal wells of Chengye 1, Chengye 2 and Chengye 1 pilot well were used to consider the new type reservoir conditions and resource potential of Chang 7 shale oil. The results show that the new type reservoir of Chang 73 shale oil in the horizontal section of 2 horizontal wells is mainly a thin layer of siltstone sandwiched in the thick mudstone-shale, the vertical single layer of single sand body is 1-5m thick and the lateral width is 100-300m, and the lithology changes frequently in the horizontal direction. The grain size of the reservoir rock is 0.10-0.12mm, and the content of quartz and feldspar is generally 50%-78%. The reservoir space is mainly intergranular pore, dissolution pore, intercrystalline pore and fracture. The maximum pore diameter reach 21μm, and the pore radius is concentrated in 0.1-3.0μm. In the reservoir of horizontal well, high pilot nature fracture and micro fracture is relatively developed and is in the east-west direction. The porosity of the reservoir rock is 6%-12%, and the permeability is generally less than 0.3 mD. Rock pyrolysis, petroleum ether extraction, dichloromethane extraction and other methods were comprehensive utilized to evaluate the shale oil resources of Chang 73 mudstone-shale and sandstone movable hydrocarbon within 220 km2 of Chengye well area, the preliminary evaluation results of which are about 0.692~0.783×108t. The distribution area of this shale oil type in the basin is about 1.5×104km2, and the prospective resources are up to 33×108t.
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    Evaluation and Practice of Fine Petroleum Exploration in the Jiyang Depression
    Song Mingshui, Li Youqiang
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 93-101.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.009
    Abstract ( 69 HTML  ( )  
    As a typical representative of continental fault basin in China, Jiyang Depression has experienced 3 exploration stages from structure exploration of large anticlines, complex oil and gas accumulation belts to subtle oil and gas reservoirs. At present, exploration objectives in the Jiyang Depression are more complex and subtle, which requires higher elaborate degree of exploration research, deployment and management. By strengthening dynamic evaluation of remaining resource potential, continuously deepening understandings of geological laws and researches and application of exploration supporting technologies, fine evaluation of exploration targets has been carried out in Shengli Oilfield to achieve the continuous and stable reserve increase in the Jiyang Depression. This paper systematically summarizes the exploration practice in the Jiyang Depression and presents “five fine and two innovative” exploration methods, which is of great theoretical and practical significance for the exploration and stable development of continental fault basins with high exploration degree in eastern China.
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    The Characteristics and Enlightenment of Ultra-deep carbonate reservoir controlled by fault-zone-architecture related dissolution in Shunbei, Tarim Basin
    Qi Lixin
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 102-111.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.010
    Abstract ( 72 HTML  ( )  
    A new type of reservoir of the billion-ton class has been discovered in Shunbei low uplift of the Tarim Basin in recent years, and we named it Shunbei ultra-deep carbonate reservoir controlled by fault-zone-architecture related dissolution. By deepening the understanding of the geological conditions of oil and gas accumulation in the Shunbei area, the underdeveloped karst reservoirs is breaking thro ugh the limitations of in low position, the structural rupture and compatibilization of the strike-slip fault zone is the main superimposed burial fluid transformation zone, and it also can form a large-scale reservoir. The multi-phase activities of the strike-slip fault zone have important control effects on reservoir reformation, trap formation, and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation, and the reservoir formation models of " multistage hydrocarbon charge from Cambrian source rocks, reservoirs controlled by deep-buried and fracture, hydrocarbon from vertical diversion in-situ, late-stage accumulation and richness controlled by strike-slip fault " was been established, and the main controlling factors for the enrichment of reservoir were been proposed. As a new type of reservoir, Shunbei Ultra-deep carbonate reservoir controlled by fault-zonearchitecture related dissolution enriches the hydrocarbon accumulation theory of marine carbonate rocks, demonstrating the huge exploration potential of ultra-deep marine carbonate rocks, it`s the key field of increasing oil and gas reserves.
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    “Ternary composite”genesis and petroleum geological significance of calcareous barriers in the 1st sand group of Shawan-1 member of Neogene in the Chepaizi bulge, Junggar Basin
    Shang Fengkai, Zhang Kuihua, Shi Haoguo, Xu Youde, Zhang Yuejing, Chen Lin
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 112-125.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.011
    Abstract ( 59 HTML  ( )  
    The exploration degree of 1st sand group of Shawan-1 member of Neogene (N1s1 1) in the Chepaizi bulge of Junggar Basin is generally high, and it is more and more difficult to tap the potential. Therefore, it is urgent to change research ideas to provide supports for subsequent re-understandings of reservoirs and searching for new exploration targets. Based on comprehensive analysis of core, thin section, well logging and seismic data, researches of identification standard, formation mechanism, and seal performance of calcareous barriers inside sand bodies have been carried out, and petroleum geological significance of calcareous barriers has been analyzed. The results show that the calcareous barriers are distributed in the middle and upper parts of sand bodies in the 1st sand group, and the lithology is mainly fine sandstones with calcite cementation. According to well loggings it is characterized as high Rt, low AC, high DEN, relatively lower GR, and SP with a certain return range. There is "ternary composite" genesis for the calcareous barriers. The formation of the calcareous barriers is controlled by 3 factors: transition surface of progradation-retrogradation in short-term cycle, sedimentary system of shallow braided river delta in arid environment, and strong calcareous cementation in sedimentary to shallow burial stages. According to the analysis of caprock breakthrough pressure, the calcareous barriers can be used as effective caprocks. Guided by the above understandings, re-understanding of reservoir characteristics based on barrier distribution has been carried out. Several favorable exploration blocks have been newly discovered around the reserve area, multiple wells have been successfully drilled, and large-scale reserves have been obtained. The achieved exploration performance is promising.
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    Exploration practices of normal-pressure shale gas in the marginal transition zone of the southeast Sichuan Basin
    He Xipeng, Wang Yunhai, Wang Yanqi, Zhang Longsheng, Wang Kaiming, Gao Yuqiao, Liu Ming
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 126-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.012
    Abstract ( 54 HTML  ( )  
    The Wufeng and Longmaxi Formations in the southeast part and the marginal transition zone of the Sichuan Basin are rich in shale gas resources at normal pressure, but face geological difficulties such as poor shale quality, low formation pressure coefficient, and large difference between the maximum and the minimum horizontal principal stress. In order to get high and stable production and efficient development, exploration practices have been carried out on the shale gas at normal pressure in the Nanchuan-Wulong area, through basic geological research, low-cost engineering technology and production management, etc., and finally understanding and practice of "five optimizations" has been established, involving optimized well locations, optimized targets, optimized fractures, optimized cost control and optimized well management. The practice has proved that research on preservation conditions, sedimentary microfacies and tectonic stress is the base for selecting and optimizing sweet spot intervals and improving fracturing design, innovative low-cost and fast drilling and completion and effective fracturing engineering technology are important for efficient development, and innovative “2+3” management and operation is the guarantee for improving production quality and efficiency.
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    Progress and practice of seismic acquisition technology for middle and deep layers in the East China Sea:a case study on the Xihu sag in the East China Sea Shelf Basin
    Gao Shunli, Chen Hua, Liu Jianbin, Wei Yun
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 137-146.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.013
    Abstract ( 49 HTML  ( )  
    The Xihusag in the East China Sea Shelf Basin has special seismic geological conditions such as deep layers, serious multiples, thick and heterogeneous sandstone or thin sand-mud-coal interbeds, which restrict deep exploration. According to the analysis of the controlling factors on the quality of seismic data and the key seismic acquisition parameters and actual seismic data recorded in different stages, the seismic acquisition process can be divided into three stages in the Xihu sag. In the early stage (2D seismic exploration stage), seismic acquisition aimed to evaluate the sag structures and zones. Acquisition parameters were developed from “short streamers and small seismic source capacity” to “long streamers and large seismic source capacity”. In the middle stage (3D seismic exploration stage), seismic acquisition aimed to realize key exploratory block evaluation. Acquisition technology experienced from conventional 3D acquisition to Q-marine technology, and acquisition technology using streamers with dual sensors. In the current stage (the secondary 3D seismic exploration on key oil and gas fields), seismic acquisition technologies, such as “slant-streamer, wide-band and wide-azimuth” acquisition, “high-density and wideazimuth” acquisition and non-zero offset VSP technology, have been studied and applied to middle-deep strata in key target blocks. Thus, a series of secondary 3D seismic exploration technologies, characterized by wide band, wide azimuth, high density and multiple components (2W1H1M), have been developed for seismic acquisition in middle-deep strata.
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    Evaluation Thoughts and Practice of Progressive Development of Offshore Oilfields Based on Dynamic OOIP Calculation
    Peng Xiaodong, Wang Xinguang, Li Hao, He Zhihui, Zhu Dingjun, Lu Yan, Song Guangze, Zhang Hua, Li Biao
    China Petroleum Exploration. 2020, 25 (1): 147-156.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-7703.2020.01.014
    Abstract ( 54 HTML  ( )  
    Due to the limited number of exploration and appraisal wells in offshore oil fields, reserve boundaries of some reservoirs are difficult to be identified, which leads to a great risk in deployment of development appraisal wells or adjustment wells. In order to reduce risks, evaluation method of progressive development in offshore oilfields based on dynamic OOIP calculation is proposed, which is to calculate dynamic OOIP based on production data, prognosis the static OOIP, re-define the reserves boundaries, so as to guide the re-calculation of reserves, deployment and implementation of development appraisal wells and adjustment wells. In order to improve the accuracy of dynamic OOIP calculation, according to different parameters applied and adaptability of the methods, the material balance method, modern production decline method and water drive curve method are selected to establish the method system for dynamic OOIP calculation. The linear material balance method of apparent reserves combined with water influx calculation has been introduced, and the modern production decline method with consideration of restricted and closed aquifer has been proposed. Referring to the “7.5” rule, the regional formula for dynamic OOIP calculation with Type A water drive curve in the western South China Sea has been established. And the Yu Qitai Type water drive curve has been preferred to calculate the movable OOIP and technical recoverable reserves in the western South China Sea. This evaluation method has achieved good practical performance in the western South China Sea, which guided the OOIP re-calculation for this type of reservoirs, promoted progressive development and adjustment of tapping potential, and reduced the risks of development appraisal wells and adjustment wells.
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