Abstract：Low-permeability reservoirs are generally developed by injecting water. In the process of waterflooding development, due to the heterogeneity of the reservoir and the microscopic randomness of the pore structure, it is common to cause fingering phenomenon, and it would become serious with continuing water injection. To make reasonable development decisions for low-permeability reservoirs, it is necessary to accurately understand the variation law of viscous fingering and its influencing factors. A viscous fingering model was established with a starting pressure gradient, for waterflooding low-permeability reservoirs, and a concept of small fingering tumors was introduced. The migration distance of small fingering tumors was used to characterize fingering change. After solving the model, the effects of permeability, density difference, formation dip, waterflooding rate and the ratio of oil-to-water viscosity were analyzed on viscous fingering. The results show that, in the process of waterflooding low-permeability reservoirs, the presence of starting pressure makes fingering phenomenon serious, but gravity can effectively slow down the phenomenon; the greater the permeability, density difference and formation dip, the less serious the fingering phenomenon; the greater the waterflooding rate and the ratio of oil-to-water viscosity, the more serious the fingering phenomenon. In order to slow down the fingering, it is suggested to inject water at the bottom of the reservoir, and the waterflooding rate should be kept reasonable.
许家峰,孙福街,田冀,安桂荣,甯波.考虑启动压力梯度时普通稠油非线性渗流模型解析求解方法[J].中国海上油气,2011,2(1):32-35. Xu Jiafeng, Sun Fujie, Tian Ji, An Guirong, Ning bo. An analytic solution method of nonlinear seepage models with ordinary heavy oil when taking threshold pressure gradient into consideration[J]. China Offshore Oil and Gas, 2011,2(1):32-35.
黄延章.低渗透油层渗流机理[M].北京:石油工业出版社,1998. Huang Yanzhang. Fluid mechanics in low-permeability reservoir[M]. Beijing:Petroleum Industry Press, 1998.
周杨,李莉,吴忠宝,甘俊奇,王俊文,刘翀.低渗透油藏垂直裂缝井产能预测及分析[J].石油钻采工艺,2017,39(2):146-150. Zhou Yang, Li Li, Wu Zhongbao, Gan Junqi, Wang Junwen, Liu Chong. Prediction and analysis on productivity of vertically fractured wells in low-permeability oil reservoirs[J]. Oil Drilling & Production Technology, 2017,39(2):146-150.
陈民锋,陈璐,张琪琛,王兆琪,杨曜宁.低渗透油藏改造后水平井压力分布规律[J].深圳大学学报:理工版,2016,33(4):401-408. Chen Minfeng, Chen Lu, Zhang Qichen, Wang Zhaoqi, Yang Yaoning. Field pressure distribution of horizontal wells in low permeable stimulated reservoirs[J]. Journal of Shenzhen University:Science and Engineering, 2016,33(4):401-408.
科林斯.流体通过多孔材料的流动[M].北京:石油工业出版社, 1984:209-214. Royal E. Collins. Flow of fluids through porous materials[M]. Beijing:Petroleum Industry Press, 1984:209-214.
苏玉亮,吴春新.倾斜油藏二氧化碳驱油黏性指进分析[J].石油钻探技术,2009,37(5):93-76. Su Yuliang, Wu Chunxin. Analysis of viscous fingering of CO2 flooding in tiltled reservoirs[J]. Petroleum Drilling Techniques, 2009,37(5):93-76.
苏玉亮,吴春新,张祥吉.非活塞驱替条件下粘性指进的表征及影响因素[J].特种油气藏,2009,16(5):51-53. Su Yuliang, Wu Chun xin, Zhang Xiangji. Characteristics of viscous fingering and its influencing factors under the conditions of non-piston displacement[J]. Special Oil & Gas Reservoirs, 2009,16(5):51-53.
雷体蔓,孟旭辉,郭照立.微通道内反应流体粘性指进的数值研究[J].计算物理,2016,33(1):30-32. Lei Timan, Meng Xuhui, Guo Zhaoli. Numerical study on viscous fingering of reaction fluid in a microchannel[J]. Chinese Journal of Computational Physics, 2016,33(1):30-32.
Saffman P G, Taylor G. The penetration of a fluid into a porous medium or Hele-Shaw cell containing a more viscous liquid[J]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1988, 245(1242):155-174.
Kopf-Sill A R, Homsy G. Nonlinear unstable viscous fingers in hele-shaw flows experiments[J]. Physics of Fluids, 1988, 31(2):242-249.
Pihler-Puzović D, Illien P, Heil M, Juel A. Suppression of complex fingerlike patterns at the interface between air and a viscous fluid by elastic membrances[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2012,108(7):074502.
Al-Housseiny T T, Christov I C, Stone H A. Two-phase fluid displacement and interfacial instabilities under elastic membranes[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2013,111(3):034502.
Mora S, Manna M. Saffman-Taylor instability for generalized Newtonian fluids[J]. Physical Review E Statistical Nonlinear & Soft Matter Physics, 2009,80(1):016308.
Mora S, Manna M. Saffman-Taylor instability of viscoelastic fluids:from viscous fingering to elastic fractures[J]. Physical Review E Statistical Nonlinear & Soft Matter Physics, 2010, 81(2):026305.
Martyushev L M, Birzina A I. Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a HeleShaw cell[J]. Physical Review E Statistical Nonlinear & Soft Matter Physics, 2015,91(1):013004.
胡江平.Hele-Shaw模型及多孔介质中两相驱替的数值模拟研究[D]. 合肥:中国科学技术大学,2015. Hu Jiangping. Numerical Investigation of the two-phase displacement in the hele-shaw cell and porous media[D]. Hefei:University of Science and Technology of China, 2015.
朱维耀,刘今子,宋洪庆,孙玉凯,王明.低/特低渗透油藏非达西渗流有效动用计算方法[J].石油学报,2010,31(3),452-457. Zhu Weiyao, Liu Jinzi, Song Hongqing, Sun Yukai, Wang Ming. Calculation of effective startup degree of non-darcy flow in low or ultra-low permeability reservoirs[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 2010,31(3):452-457.
贾红兵.层状油藏重力渗流机理及其应用[J].石油学报,2012, 33(1):112-115. Jia Hongbing. Gravity percolation mechanism of layered reservoirs and its application[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 2012, 33(1):112-115.
王文东,苏玉亮,慕立俊,唐梅荣,高丽.致密油藏直井体积压裂储层改造体积的影响因素[J].中国石油大学学报:自然科学版,2013, 37(3):93-97. Wang Wendong, Su Yuliang, Mu Lijun, Tang Meirong, Gao Li. Influencing factors of timulated reservoir volume of vertical wells in tight oil reservoirs[J]. Journal of China University of Petroleum:Edition of Natural Science, 2013,37(3):93-97.
宋付权,刘慈群.含启动压力梯度油藏的两相渗流分析[J].石油大学学报:自然科学版,1999,23(3):47-50. Song Fuquan, Liu Ciqun. Analysis of two-phase flow in reservoir with the threshold pressure gradient[J]. Journal of University of Petroleum:Edition of Natural Sciences, 1999, 23(3):47-50.
孔祥言,陈峰磊,裴柏林.水驱油物理模拟理论和相似准则[J].石油勘探与开发,1997,24(6):56-60,117. Kong Xiangyan, Chen Fenglei, Pei Bolin. Similar theory, similar rule and data conversion software for water drive modeling[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 1997,24(6):56-60,117.